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Description & Specification:

X-RAY SPECTROMETER This X-ray spectrometer has been designed specifically for teaching physics. It includes many experiments (starting from basic concepts of
X rays to more complex tests).
The system is a spectrometer that can easily be adapted to
• a wide beam of X rays for examining the general properties
of X rays
• a Bragg diffractometer with a range accuracy of 5 minutes
of arc
• a powder diffraction camera for Debye-Scherrer
experiments with accuracy up to 30 minutes of arc
• an emitter of fluorescent radiation for the study of
Moseley’s law stating that each element is characterized
by its own atomic number
• an experimental region for the preparation of innovatory
studies chosen by teachers.
Students can easily read calibrations and scales on this X-ray
The system can be controlled by PC via X-Driver.
A lot of safety and protection devices from X rays have been
integrated in the system with proper absorption shields.
The safety switches prevent any operation if all the covers are
not safely closed and set in operating position.
The unit can be motorized by adding a motor that can be
installed inside the equipment.

With the basic system, the students can perform more than 10
experimental X-ray readings using photographic technics and
the Geiger Muller tube.
it is possible to study:
• Laue X-ray diffraction,
• Bragg diffraction on single crystals and X-ray emission
• the X-rays properties like the rectilinear propagation, the
square inverse ratio, the penetration and the absorption.

• Motorized spectrometer with Geiger Muller tube
• X-Driver
• Basic accessory kit
• Film and Chemicals for 20 radiographs
• Film and Chemicals for 12 Powder camera experiments

X-Driver comes complete with everything you need to automate
data taking with the spectrometer.
Take data from 12 to 120 degrees with a maximum resolution
of 0.05 degrees. The time per step is also adjustable, and can be
as little as .1 sec. Scans can be obtained for all 4 of the crystals
available: NaCl, LiF, KCl, and RbCl. An additional feature includes
the ability to scan powders and foils.
The X-Driver is USB powered. A Geiger Muller tube can be
connected directly to this unit, negating the need for an
additional scalar or ratemeter. Software allows selection of
scan angles, resolution, and time/step. Data is automatically
saved every 30 seconds thus preventing the loss of data during
a long scan in the event of a power failure. Once the experiment
is completed the software permits zoom-in on the data and the
facility to add comments to the fi le. Data can be exported to a
spreadsheet for further analysis.

A Kit of 26 components includes Collimators, Luminescent
Screen, Film Cassettes and all the items necessary to perform
more than 30 experiments. Thin foils of Nickel, Copper, Cobalt
and Zinc are included which are used to evaluate the Mass
Absorption Coefficient. They are also used in conjunction
with a Rotary Radiator which presents these 4 elements, and
in addition Iron, Vanadium, Manganese and Chromium, to the
primary X-ray beam. These 8 elements are sequential in the
Periodic Table and secondary emission from them is analyzed
to verify Moseley’s Law. The classical Bragg relationship can
be established using large single crystals of Sodium Chloride
and Lithium Fluoride and additionally Planck’s Constant
can be derived from the minimum wavelength cutoff. Small
minicrystals of LiF are included to record Laue and upper layerline
photographs. Finely divided LiF powder and copper wire
strands can be used to demonstrate Debye-Scherrer analytical
techniques with a special self-locating Powder Camera.
In addition to the basic configuration, to study the Moseley law,
the Debye-Scherrer dust diffraction and the atomic number
effect on the unitary cell dimension of salt crystals, it is possible
to add the crystallographic kit (optional) while to perform some
research in radiography and know all the X-rays properties, it is
possible to add the radiographic kit (optional).

This kit of 16 prepared elements is intended to supplement the
Basic Kit. For a more comprehensive study of Moseley’s Law
four more thin foil slides are included. They are Iron, Vanadium,
Manganese and Chromium. Together with the 4 slides in the
Basic Kit, there can now be 8 thin foil slides to be used in
conjunction with the 8 -element Rotary Radiator. There are 5
vials of finely divided powders, 2 vials of drawn wire and large
single crystals of Potassium Chloride and Rubidium Chloride.
All of these materials are used in a carefully integrated study of
the salient features of crystallographic analysis.

This kit is designed for teaching X-ray applications for
nondestructive testing.
It includes 16 components with which the production and
properties of X-rays can be studied. Additional emphasis is
given to scattering, differential absorption and linear absorption
coefficients; to the relationship between penetration, resolution
and exposure time, accelerating voltage and tube current

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